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Watership Down is a heroic fantasy/political novel about a small group of rabbits, written by English author Richard Adams. Although the animals in the story live in their natural environment, they are anthropomorphised, possessing their own culture, language (Lapine), proverbs, poetry, and mythology. Evoking epic themes, the novel recounts the rabbits' odyssey as they escape the destruction of their warren to seek a place in which to establish a new home, encountering perils and temptations along the way.

The novel takes its name from the rabbits' destination, Watership Down, a hill in the north of Hampshire, England, near the area where Adams grew up. The story is based on a collection of tales that Adams told to his young children to pass the time on trips to the countryside.

Published in 1972, Watership Down was Richard Adams' first novel, and is by far his most successful to date. Though it was initially rejected by thirteen publishers before eventually being accepted by Rex Collings Ltd, Watership Down has never been out of print, and was the recipient of several prestigious awards. Adapted into an acclaimed classic film and a television series, it is Penguin Books' best-selling novel of all time.[1][2] In 1996, Adams published Tales from Watership Down, a follow-up collection of 19 short stories about El-ahrairah and the rabbits of the Watership Down warren.[3][4]

Publication history

Watership Down began as a story Richard Adams told to his two daughters, Juliet and Rosamond, on a long car journey; in an interview, Adams said he "began telling the story of the rabbits ... improvised off the top of my head, as we were driving along."[2][5] He based the struggles of the animals in the story on the struggles he and his friends encountered during the Battle of Oosterbeek, Arnhem, the Netherlands in 1944.[1] His daughters insisted he write it down—"they were very, very persistent"—and though he initially delayed, he eventually began writing in the evenings, completing it eighteen months later.[5] The book is dedicated to his daughters.[6]

"To Juliet and Rosamund,
remembering
the road to Stratford-on-Avon
"
—Dedication, Watership Down

However, Adams had difficulty finding a publisher; his novel was rejected 13 times in all, until it was finally accepted by Rex Collings, a small publishing house.[2] The publisher had little capital and could not pay Adams an advance; but "he got a review copy onto every desk in London that mattered."[5]

Adams's descriptions of wild rabbit behaviour were based upon The Private Life of the Rabbit (1964), by British naturalist Ronald Lockley.[7][8] The two later became friends and went on an expedition to the Antarctic, resulting in a joint writing venture, Voyage Through the Antarctic, published in 1982.[7]

Plot summary

File:Watership Down.gif

The novel begins in a warren with, Fiver, a young rabbit, who is considered a runt by the warren and yet is also a seer, receiving a frightening vision of his warren's imminent destruction. He and his brother Hazel, the main character of the novel who at this point is low in the rabbit hierarchy, attempt to persuade their chief rabbit of the danger facing them, but he ignores them because of Fiver's inability to accurately describe this danger. They then set out on their own with a small band of rabbits to search for a new home, though with difficulty, as the warren's military caste, the Owsla try to prevent them leaving.

The traveling group of rabbits find themselves following the leadership of Hazel, a role reversal because of his previous position as an unimportant member of the warren. They travel through dangerous territory, with Bigwig and Silver, both former Owsla, and Buckthorn as the only significantly strong rabbits among them. The company cope with many dangers, but by far the most threatening is when they meet a rabbit called Cowslip, who then invites the group back to be members of his warren. Here, the company encounter an apparently prosperous rabbit colony with ample food and protection from predators by a human whose farm is near their warren. However, Fiver is profoundly suspicious especially when he observes that these rabbits do not tell the customary tales of El-ahrairah but instead recite fatalistic poetry. When Fiver attempts to leave, Bigwig learns firsthand the deadly secret of the warren; the whole area is a human designed rabbit farm with numerous snares placed to harvest them. After helping Bigwig escape from a snare, Fiver convinces his fellows to leave this honey trap of a colony immediately, who after being exposed to the warren's horrific secret, flee with them.

Fiver's visions promise a safe place in which to settle, and the group eventually finds Watership Down, an ideal location to set up their new warren. They are soon reunited with Holly and Bluebell, also from the original warren, who reveal that Fiver's vision was true and the entire warren was destroyed by humans.

Everything is peaceful for a while before Hazel encounters a problem. Hazel realises there are no does, making the continuation of their new home an impossibility . With the help of a seagull named Kehaar who they have befriended , they locate a nearby warren, Efrafa, which is overcrowded and has many does.

Hazel sends a small emissary to this warren, composed of Holly, Silver, Buckthorn, and Strawberry, to present their request for does. While waiting for the group to return, Hazel makes a reconnaissance trip with Pipkin to a nearby farm to talk with a group of hutch rabbits who live there, partly in their quest for does but also because of Hazel's curiosity. They discover there are indeed does at the farm and, against the advice of the clairvoyant Fiver, decide to gather a raiding party to attempt to bring them to Watership Down. They don't successfully bring back any does, but they bring back news that there are in fact does there.

Hazel and the trustworthy yet diminutive Pipkin bring back the tidings to Watership Down, setting the stage for an adventurous and daring raid. Hazel and Bigwig, along with a group of four others, venture out to the farm and bring the hutch rabbits to Watership Down. They return with two does, a good start, but not nearly enough for a warren of their size. On their way back, Hazel suffers a gunshot wound to his hind leg. This is a wound that will never truly heal, and will play a large part in the rest of the story.

At this point in the novel, the emissary returns from Efrafa and Hazel and his rabbits learn that Efrafa is a tyrannical police state led by the dictator General Woundwort; Hazel's rabbits barely return alive. However, the group does manage to identify an Efrafan doe named Hyzenthlay who wants to leave the warren and can recruit other does to join.

Hazel and Bigwig devise a plan to rescue the group of rabbits from Efrafa to join them on Watership Down. The Efrafan escapees start their new life on Watership Down, but soon Woundwort's army arrives to attack their warren. Through the bravery and loyalty of Bigwig and the ingenuity of Hazel, the Watership Down rabbits defeat Woundwort's army. The fate of Woundwort himself is not exactly clear, but he is never again seen or heard of by any rabbit, bird, or mouse near the down.

The novel's last pages tell the reader of Watership down after the battle, as well as how Hazel, by now an old rabbit, is sleeping in his burrow one "chilly, blustery morning in March." Hazel is visited by El-ahrairah, who invites Hazel to join his Owsla. Leaving his friends and no-longer-needed body behind, Hazel departs Watership Down, slipping away, "running easily down through the wood, where the first primroses were beginning to bloom." This way of describing Hazel's death reinforces the idea of the rabbits' mythology, and also ends a sometimes sad and depressing novel with a feeling of hope and wonderment with which the novel is sporadically permeated.

Characters

  • Hazel: The protagonist, Fiver's brother; he leads the rabbits from Sandleford and eventually becomes Chief Rabbit. Though Hazel is not particularly large or powerful, he is loyal, brave, and a quick thinker. He sees the good in each individual, and what they bring to the table; in so doing, he makes sure that no one gets left behind, thus earning the respect and loyalty of his warren. He often relies on Fiver's advice, and trusts in his brother's instincts absolutely.
  • Fiver: A small runt rabbit whose name literally means "Little-five" or "Little-many" (rabbits have a single word, "hrair", for all numbers greater than four; Fiver's name in Lapine, Hrairoo, indicates that he is the smallest of a litter of five or more rabbits). As a seer, he has visions and very strong instincts. Fiver is one of the most intelligent rabbits in the group. He is quiet and intuitive, and though he does not directly act as a leader, the others listen to and follow his advice.
  • Bigwig: An ex-Owsla officer, and the largest rabbit of the group. His name in Lapine is Thlayli, which literally means "Fur-head" and refers to the shock of fur on the back of his head. Though he is powerful and fierce, he is shown to also be cunning in his own way when he devises a plan to defeat the larger and stronger General Woundwort.
  • Blackavar: A rabbit with very dark fur who tries to escape from Efrafa but is apprehended, mutilated, and put on display to discourage further escape attempts. When he is liberated by Bigwig, he quickly proves himself as an expert tracker and ranger.
  • Kehaar: A Black-headed Gull who is forced, by an injured wing, to take refuge on Watership Down. He is characterised by his frequent impatience, guttural accent and unusual phrasing. After discovering the Efrafa warren and helping the rabbits, he rejoins his colony. According to Adams, Kehaar was based on a fighter from the Norwegian Resistance in World War II.[9]
  • General Woundwort: A vicious, cruel and brutally efficient rabbit who was orphaned at a young age, Woundwort founded the Efrafa warren and is its tyrannical chief. Though he is greater even than Bigwig in terms of his size and strength, he lacks the former's loyalty and kindness. He even leads an attack to capture the Watership warren as an act of revenge against Bigwig. After his apparent death, he lives on in rabbit legend as a bogeyman.
  • Frith: A god-figure who created the world and promised that rabbits would always be allowed to thrive. In Lapine, his name literally means "the sun".
  • El-ahrairah: A rabbit trickster folk hero, who is the protagonist of nearly all of the rabbits' stories. He represents what every rabbit wants to be: smart, devious, tricky, and devoted to the well-being of his warren. In Lapine, his name is a contraction of the phrase Elil-hrair-rah, which means "prince with a thousand enemies".
  • Black Rabbit of Inlé: A sinister phantom servant of the god Frith who appears in rabbit folklore. He is the rabbit equivalent of a grim reaper in human folklore, and similarly ensures all rabbits die at their predestined time. "Inlé" is the Lapine term for the moon or darkness.

Themes

Watership Down has been described as an allegory, with the labours of Hazel, Fiver, Bigwig, and Silver "mirror[ing] the timeless struggles between tyranny and freedom, reason and blind emotion, and the individual and the corporate state."[10] Adams draws on classical heroic and quest themes from Homer and Virgil, creating a story with epic motifs.[11] Additionally, some scholars have criticized its representation of gender.

Religious symbolism

It has been suggested that Watership Down contains elements of Christian or anti-Christian symbolism, or that the stories of El-ahrairah were meant to mimic some elements of real-world religion. When asked in a 2007 BBC Radio interview about the religious symbolism in the novel, Adams stated that the story was "nothing like that at all". Adams said that the rabbits in Watership Down did not worship, however, "they believed passionately in El-ahrairah". Adams explained that he meant the book to be, "only a made-up story... in no sense an allegory or parable or any kind of political myth. I simply wrote down a story I told to my little girls". Instead, he explained, the "let-in" religious stories of El-ahrairah were meant more as legendary tales, similar to a rabbit Robin Hood, and that these stories were interspersed throughout the book as humorous interjections to the often "grim" tales of the "real story".[12]

The hero, The Odyssey, and The Aeneid

The book explores the themes of exile, survival, heroism, political responsibility, and the "making of a hero and a community".[13] Joan Bridgman's analysis of Adams's works in The Contemporary Review identifies the community and hero motifs: "[T]he hero's journey into a realm of terrors to bring back some boon to save himself and his people" is a powerful element in Adams's tale. This theme derives from the author's exposure to the works of mythologist Joseph Campbell, especially his study of comparative mythology, The Hero with a Thousand Faces (1949), and in particular, Campbell's "monomyth" theory, also based on Carl Jung's view of the unconscious mind, that "all the stories in the world are really one story.".[11]

The concept of the hero has invited comparisons between Watership Down's characters and those in Homer's Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid.[10] Hazel's courage, Bigwig's strength, Blackberry's ingenuity and craftiness, and Dandelion's and Bluebell's poetry and storytelling all have parallels in the epic poem Odyssey.[14] Kenneth Kitchell declared, "Hazel stands in the tradition of Odysseus, Aeneas, and others".[15] Tolkien scholar John Rateliff calls Adams's novel an Aeneid "what-if" book: what if the seer Cassandra (Fiver) had been believed and she and a company had fled Troy (Sandleford Warren) before its destruction? What if Hazel and his companions, like Aeneas, encounter a seductive home at Cowslip's Warren (Land of the Lotus Eaters)? Rateliff goes on to compare the rabbits' battle with Woundwort's Efrafans to Aeneas's fight with Turnus's Latins. "By basing his story on one of the most popular books of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, Adams taps into a very old myth: the flight from disaster, the heroic refugee in search of a new home, a story that was already over a thousand years old when Vergil told it in 19 BC."[1]

Gender roles

The 1993 Puffin Modern Classics edition of the novel contains an afterword by Nicholas Tucker, who wrote that stories such as Watership Down "now fit rather uneasily into the modern world of consideration of both sexes". He contrasted Hazel's sensitivity to Fiver with the "far more mechanical" attitude of the bucks towards does, who Tucker considers are portrayed as "little more than passive baby-factories".[16]

In "Male Chauvinist Rabbits," an essay originally published in the New York Times Book Review, Selma G. Lanes criticized Adams's treatment of gender. She observed that the first third of the story is a "celebration of male camaraderie, competence, bravery and loyalty as a scraggly bunch of yearling bucks ... arrive triumphant at a prospectively ideal spot", only to realize that they have no females for mating.[17] "Fully the last two-thirds of Adams's saga," Lanes argued, "is devoted to what one male reviewer has blithely labelled 'The Rape of the Sabine Rabbits,' a ruthless, single-minded and rather mean-spirited search for females – not because Watership Down's males miss their companionship or yearn for love, but rather to perpetuate the existing band."[17] For Adams, Lanes continued, the does are only "instruments of reproduction" to prevent the achievement of reaching Watership Down from "becoming a hollow victory."[17] As evidence, Lanes pointed to Hazel and Holly's assessment of the rescued Nuthanger does' value: "it came naturally ... to consider the two Nuthanger does simply as breeding stock for the warren."[18]

Lanes argued that this view of the female rabbits came from Adams himself rather than his source text, Ronald Lockley's The Private Life of the Rabbit. In Lockley's text, by contrast, the rabbit world is matriarchal, and new warrens are always initiated by dissatisfied, young females. Hence, Lanes concluded, Adams's novel is "marred by an attitude towards females that finds more confirmation in Hugh Hefner's Playboy than R. M. Lockley's The Private Life of the Rabbit."[19]

In similar vein, literary critic Jane Resh Thomas stated that Watership Down "draws upon ... an anti-feminist social tradition which, removed from the usual human context and imposed upon rabbits, is eerie in its clarity." Thomas did find much to admire about Watership Down, calling it a "splendid story". For her, its "anti-feminist bias ... damages the novel in only a minor way."[20] Yet she later explained: "I wrote about Watership Down because I was angry and hurt when I read the book. ... I felt he [Adams] had treated me and my kind with a contempt I couldn't be silent about."[21]

Adams' 1996 sequel, Tales from Watership Down includes stories where the does play a more prominent role in the Watership Down warren. It has been suggested that this might have been an attempt to modernise the story, to make it more politically correct and gender sensitive for the 1990s in which it was published.[22]

Reception

The Economist heralded the initial publication of Watership Down with, "If there is no place for “Watership Down” in children’s bookshops, then children’s literature is dead."[23] Peter Prescott, senior book reviewer at Newsweek, gave the novel a glowing review: "Adams handles his suspenseful narrative more dextrously than most authors who claim to write adventure novels, but his true achievement lies in the consistent, comprehensible and altogether enchanting civilisation that he has created."[13] Kathleen J. Rothen and Beverly Langston identified the work as one that "subtly speaks to a child", with "engaging characters and fast-paced action [that] make it readable."[14] This echoed Nicholas Tucker's praise for the story's suspense in the New Statesman: "Mr. Adams’ ... has bravely and successfully resurrected the big picaresque adventure story, with moments of such tension that the helplessly involved reader finds himself checking whether things are going to work out all right on the next page before daring to finish the preceding one."[24]

The "enchanting" world Prescott admired was not as well received upon its 1974 American publication. Although again the object of general approval, reception in the United States was more mixed, unlike the predominantly positive reviews of 1972. D. Keith Mano, a science fiction writer and conservative social commentator writing in the National Review, declared that the novel was "pleasant enough, but it has about the same intellectual firepower as Dumbo." He pilloried it further: "Watership Down is an adventure story, no more than that: rather a swashbuckling, crude one to boot. There are virtuous rabbits and bad rabbits: if that’s allegory, Bonanza is an allegory."[25]

Despite the criticism, Watership Down was a hit with the reading public. The novel found a spot on the Publishers Weekly’s Best-Seller List in March 1974; it attained the number one ranking on 15 April 1974, and remained there for another three months. The book did not drop off the list until February 1975.[citation needed]

John Rowe Townsend notes that the book quickly achieved such a high popularity despite the fact that it, "came out at a high price and in an unattractive jacket from a publisher who had hardly been had heard of".[26] Fred Inglis, in his book The Promise of Happiness: Value and meaning in children's fiction, praises the author’s use of prose to express the strangeness of ordinary human inventions from the rabbits' perspective.[27]

Awards

Watership Down won both the Carnegie Medal in 1972 and the Guardian Children's Fiction Prize in 1973.[28][29] In The Big Read, a 2003 survey of the British public, it was voted the forty-second greatest book of all time.[30]

Adaptations

Film

Main article: Watership Down (film)

In 1978 Martin Rosen wrote and directed an animated film adaptation of Watership Down. The voice cast included John Hurt, Richard Briers, Harry Andrews, Simon Cadell, Nigel Hawthorne, and Roy Kinnear. The film featured the song "Bright Eyes", sung by Art Garfunkel. Released as a single, the song became a UK number one hit.[31]

Although the essentials of the plot remained relatively unchanged, the film omits several side plots. Though the Watership Down warren eventually grew to seventeen rabbits, with the additions of Strawberry, Holly, Bluebell, and three hutch rabbits liberated from the farm, the movie only includes a band of eight.[citation needed] Rosen's adaptation was praised for "cutting through Adams' book ... to get to the beating heart".[32]

The film has also seen some positive critical attention. In 1979 the film received a nomination for the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.[33] Additionally, British television station Channel 4's 2006 documentary 100 Greatest Cartoons named it the 86th greatest cartoon of all time.[34]

Television

From 1999 to 2001, the book was also adapted as an animated television series, broadcast on CITV in the UK and on YTV in Canada.[35] It starred several well-known British actors, including Stephen Fry, Rik Mayall, Dawn French, John Hurt, and Richard Briers, and ran for a total of 39 episodes over three seasons. Although the story was broadly based on that of the novel, with most characters and many incidents retained, in later episodes especially some story lines and characters were entirely new. In 2003, the second season was nominated for a Gemini Award for Best Original Music Score for a Dramatic Series.[36]

Theatre

In 2006, Watership Down was adapted into a theatrical production by Rona Munro for the Lyric Hammersmith in London. Directed by Melly Still, the cast included Matthew Burgess, Joseph Traynor, and Richard Simons, and ran from November 2006 through January 2007.[37] The tone of the production was inspired by the tension of war: in an interview with The Guardian, Still commented, "The closest humans come to feeling like rabbits is under war conditions ... We've tried to capture that anxiety."[38] A reviewer at The Times called the play "an exciting, often brutal tale of survival" and said that "even when it’s a muddle, it’s a glorious one."[39]

Role-playing game

Main article: Bunnies & Burrows

Watership Down inspired the creation of Bunnies & Burrows, a role-playing game centred around talking rabbits, published in 1976 by Fantasy Games Unlimited.[40] It introduced several innovations to role-playing game design, being the first game to allow players to have non-humanoid roles, as well as the first with detailed martial arts and skill systems. Fantasy Games Unlimited published a second edition of the game in 1982, and the game was modified and republished by Steve Jackson Games as an official GURPS supplement in 1992.

Music

American folk rock trio America performed a song titled "Watership Down", released by Warner Bros. Records in April 1976 on their Hideaway album. Composed by singer/songwriter Gerry Beckley, the song's lyrics refer obliquely to the story elements, including the phrase "you might hear them in the distance, if your ear's to the ground." Although the song did not chart, it did receive airplay on FM album rock stations during the year.

Swedish progressive rock musician Bo Hansson recorded a suite named "Rabbit Music" which was based on the book, as part of his 1975 album Attic Thoughts. Two years later, Hansson released an entire album devoted to the novel, titled Music Inspired by Watership Down.

The British electro group Ladytron shot a music video for their single "Ghosts", off their 2008 album Velocifero, which featured many references to Watership Down.

American art-rock band ...And You Will Know Us by the Trail of Dead has one song on their self-titled album, released in 1998, called "Prince With A Thousand Enemies".

American hip-hop group Common Market recorded a song called "Watership Down" on their 2008 EP Black Patch War.

American punk band AFI_(band) used imagery from the movie on the cover of their Decemberunderground album.

British post hardcore band, Fall Of Efrafa created a trilogy of concept records based around an interpretation of the political and religious ideology in the book.

Paul McCartney and Wings [ Band On The Run (1973) (album)] has the song Band On The Run referencing this work in the line "And the bell was ringing in the village square for the rabbits on the run".

Parodies

In an episode of the British comedy show The Goodies, entitled Animals, nature presenters from the BBC are forced to escape in rabbit suits from the fury of animals now granted equal rights with humans. It features the music and animation in the style of the movies.

In the American TV show Robot Chicken, a parody of the book is done with the Fraggles, the main characters of the show Fraggle Rock, in place of the rabbits.

Other references

Watership Down has been referenced in other media.

  • In Stephen King's novel The Stand, protagonist Stu Redman reads Watership Down non-stop for two days.
  • in ABC TV's show Lost, one of the main characters, Sawyer, is shown several times reading the book.
  • In the film Donnie Darko, the book and its film adaptation are viewed and discussed.
  • In the Gundam metaseries, especially the manga Advance of Zeta: The Flag of Titans, the Titans test team use a rabbit in their logo and name their units after characters from the book.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rateliff, John D. "Classics of Fantasy". Wizards of the Coast, Inc. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 BBC Berkshire (2007-03-16). "Interview: Richard Adams". BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  3. Template:IBList
  4. Sally Eckhoff (1996-11-26). "Tales from Watership Down". Salon.com. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Swaim, Don (1985-04-10). "Audio Interview with Richard Adams" (audio). Book Beat. CBS Radio Stations News Service. Retrieved 2008-03-21. [dead link]
  6. Richard Adams (1972). Watership Down. United Kingdom: Rex Collings. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Ronald Lockley: Find More Like This" 355 (8168). The Economist. 2000-04-29: 84. In 1964 he had published The Private Life of the Rabbit. This study of the habits of the wild rabbit gathered by Mr Lockley persuaded Richard Adams to write Watership Down, a kind of Disney story for adults, which became an immediate bestseller. 
  8. Douglas Martin (2000-04-04). "Ronald Lockley, of Rabbit Fame, Dies at 96". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-26. In his acknowledgments, Mr. Adams credited Mr. Lockley's book for his own description of bunny behavior in his tale of wandering rabbits. 
  9. Introduction by Richard Adams in Watership Down, Scribner edition, USA 2005. ISBN 0-7432-7770-8.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Masterplots II: Juvenile and Young Adult Fiction Series". Salem Press, Inc. 1991.  |contribution= ignored (help)
  11. 11.0 11.1 Script error
  12. "Interview: Richard Adams". BBC Berkshire Website. March 16, 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Prescott, Peter S. (1974-03-18). "Rabbit, Read". Newsweek: 114. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Script error
  15. Kitchell, Jr., Kenneth F. (Fall 1986). "The Shrinking of the Epic Hero: From Homer to Richard Adams’s Watership Down". Classical and Modern Literature: A Quarterly 7 (1): 13–30. ISSN 0197-2227. 
  16. Tucker, Nicholas (1993). "Afterword". In Richard Adams, Watership Down. London: Puffin Modern Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-036453-8. In later printings of the same edition, however, this part of the afterword is excised.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Lanes, p. 196
  18. Page 222 of the 1996 Simon and Schuster edition
  19. Lanes, Selma (2004). Through the Looking Glass: Further Adventures and Misadventures in the Realm of Children's Literature. David R. Godine. , p. 198
  20. Resh Thomas, Jane (4 August 1974). "Old Worlds and New: Anti-Feminism in Watership Down". The Horn Book L (4): 405–08. 
  21. Quoted in Script error, p. 17
  22. J. D. Biersdorfer (1996-12-01). "Books in Brief: Fiction". The New York Times. 
  23. "Pick of the Warren". The Economist. 1972-12-23: 47. 
  24. Tucker, Nicholas (1972-12-22). "Animal Epic". New Statesman: 950. 
  25. Mano, D. Keith (1974-04-26). "Banal Bunnies". National Review: 406. 
  26. Townsend, John Rowe; Betsy Hearne, Marilyn Kaye (eds.) (1981). Celebrating Children's Books: Essays on Children's Literature in Honor of Zena Sutherland. New York: Lathrop, Lee, and Shepard Books. p. 185. ISBN 0-688-00752-X.  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= (help)
  27. Inglis, Fred (1981). The Promise of Happiness: Value and meaning in children's fiction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0521231426. 
  28. "The CILIP Carnegie Medal — Full List of Winners". CILIP Carnegie and Kate Greenaway Children’s Book Awards. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  29. "British Children's Literature Awards: Guardian Children's Prize for Fiction" (PDF). Burnaby Public Library. 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  30. Script error
  31. Collings, Stephen (2003–2008). accessdate = 2008-03-28 "Watership Down (1978)" Check |url= value (help). BFI Screenonline. 
  32. Phil Villarreal (2005-07-15). "Phil Villarreal's Review: Watership Down". Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  33. "1979 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  34. "100 Greatest Cartoons". Channel 4. 2005-02-27. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  35. Decode Entertainment. "Watership Down". http://www.decode.tv/index.php?sid=50
  36. "Canada's Awards Database". Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television. 2003. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  37. "Christmas at the Lyric: Watership Down". Lyric Hammersmith. Archived from the original on March 14, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  38. Gardner, Lyn (2006-11-22). "Down the rabbit hole". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-03-21. The closest humans come to feeling like rabbits is under war conditions. Imagine what it would be like if every time we stepped out on the street, we know we could be picked off by a sniper. We've tried to capture that anxiety in the way the rabbits speak—lots of short, jerky sentences. 
  39. Sam Marlowe (2006-11-29). "Watership Down". London: The Times. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  40. GURPS Bunnies & Burrows (1992), Steve Jackson Games, ISBN 978-1-55634-237-0

In the anthropomorphic comic book series SHANDA THE PANDA, several references are made to Watership Down. In SHANDA 21, a rabbit named RAINBOW LAPIN is shown entering a hidden hole in a hedgerow and emerging into a small shrine with a stone rabbit and altar. She then prays to El-ahrairah, Prince of Rabbits. After this there are several references to a hidden religion among the rabbits of the series based on the tales of WATERSHIP DOWN.

External links

Awards
Preceded by
Josh
Carnegie Medal recipient
1972
Succeeded by
The Ghost of Thomas Kempe

Template:Watership Down Template:RichardAdams

bg:Хълмът Уотършип cs:Daleká cesta za domovem da:Kaninbjergetit:La collina dei conigli he:גבעת ווטרשיפ nl:Waterschapsheuvelpl:Wodnikowe Wzgórze ru:Корабельный холм (книга) simple:Watership Down sr:Брежуљак Вотершип fi:Ruohometsän kansa sv:Den långa flykten th:ยุทธการทุ่งวอเตอร์ชิป zh:瓦特希普高原

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