The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian is a cycle of connected poems by the Scottish makar Robert Henryson. In the accepted text it consists of thirteen versions of fables, seven modelled on stories from "Aesop" expanded from the Latin elegaic Romulus manuscripts, one of the standard fable texts in medieval Europe. The remaining six follow the more general beast epic tradition. Five of this second group feature Henryson's version of the Reynardian trickster figure, the fox, who he calls Lowrence. The core of the poems in the beast epic group explore a relationship between Lowrence and the figure of the wolf, who similarly appears in five of the six. The wolf then "overlaps" the beast epic poems of the cycle to make a sixth and most brutal appearance in the final verse Romulus section.
The subtle and ambiguous way in which Henryson adapted and juxtaposed material from a diversity of sources in the tradition and exploited anthropomorphic conventions to blend human characteristics with animal observation both worked within, and pushed the bounds of, standard practice in the common medieval art of fable re-telling. Henryson fully exploited the fluid aspects of the tradition to produce an unusually sophisticated moral narrative, unique of its kind, making high art of an otherwise conventional genre.
Internal evidence suggests that the work was composed in or around the 1480s.
The Thirteen Fabillis
The parts in this section give brief descriptions of each poem in the Morall Fabillis. You can also click the heading links to read separate main pages with fuller articles for each individual fabill. Subsequent sections on this page then give a further account of various general aspects of the cycle as a whole, beginning with the article Numbers and structure below.
Prolog and Fabill 1
The Prolog introduces the whole cycle in principle, not merely the first fabill. It begins with a defence of the art of storytelling, argues that humour is a necessary part of life and tells the reader that the intention is to make a translation of Aesop from Latin.
Fable translation was a standard classroom exercise in medieval Europe and the principal source for this was the Latin verse Romulus. Henryson's opening argument is, indeed, an expanded and re-orchestrated "translation" of the argument in the opening prologue of the Romulus text, but even from the start the poet far exceeds his commonplace "commission". He expands the unremarkable classroom material with an unusual degree of refinement, invention and cognisance, establishes a mature and personalised relationship with the reader, highlights Aesop's uncomfortably human context and hints at ambiguities. The prolog immediately foreshadows methods that the rest of the cycle will further develop.
Taill and moralitas
The first fabill in the Romulus text, De Gallo et Jaspide (The Cock and the Jewel), depicts a cockerel who rejects a valuable gemstone in preference for more precious grain. The Morall Fabillis opens with the same example. Although the fabill has no substantial story as such, Henryson's version quietly keeps the narrative promises made in the prolog by re-imagining the material as a strongly-realised vignette, giving it a specific setting and hinting at a fully characterised cockerel. His artfulness subtly foreshadows the more fully-fleshed stories yet to come (deferred tactics) but the adaption remains broadly conservative and the moralitas (moral; plural moralitates) comes down unreservedly against the cockerel on the grounds that the jewel represents wisdom rather than wealth. In the Romulus this judgement occurs in only two lines; Henryson, making the same case, states it with an almost unexpected force, taking five stanzas.
Despite providing the standard "medieval" closure on Aesop's "riddle", most modern critics note the way Henryson nevertheless seems to contrive an effect of dissonance between the fabill and the moralitas. Longer acquaintance may modify this view, but the impression remains of an opening poem that wants to establish layered modes of narration, introduce complexity and contrive to play with readers' expectations.
Fabill 2 (The Twa Mice) is a retelling of Aesop's Town Mouse and Country Mouse. Its purpose is to recommend and praise simple living. Henryson expands upon common versions of the story to create a succinct, fully-fleshed narrative rich in incident and characterisation which fairly transcends its known sources while remaining faithful to the story's original elements. It is possibly one of the best known and most anthologised of his poems.
In context, Fabill 2 sets a standard for free narrative improvisation, coupled with close control and subtlety of inference, that will be sustained for the remainder of the larger cycle. At this point the adaptation is conservative, but other tales (e.g. Fabill 6) will make far less straightforward use of Aesop.
Fabill 3 (The Cock and the Fox) is the first Reynardian story in the Morall Fabillis and thus introduces the tod into the cycle. In various incarnations he is principal figure in the cycle after the wolf. Tod is a Scots word for fox and the poem interchangeably uses both terms. Henryson's tod is called Schir Lowrence.
The story in the fabill is an important adaptation of Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale. The successful conceit of Chaucer's poem was to create comic drama from a simple act of animal predation. Henryson's version condenses the main action, refines the psychology and introduces many variations, such as for instance its feature of three hens, Pertok, Sprutok and Toppok, each with distinctly contrasted characters.
Fabill 3 is the first in a sequence of three taillis (3, 4 and 5) which form a continuous narrative within the larger whole, the only section of the cycle to do this.
Fabill 4 (The Confession of the Tod) continues the story from the previous fabill and follows the fatal aventure and destinie of the tod after losing his prey. It is also the taill in which the wolf, the major figure of the cycle (in terms of number of times featured) first enters as a protagonist.
Lowrence, having been tricked into releasing Chanticleir while fleeing the pack of dogs sent in his pursuit, skulks off at the beginning of Fabill 4, exhausted and still hungry, with his confidence shaken, to hide until nightfall. When darkness comes he climbs a hill, reads his fate in the stars and decides to repent of his crimes.
Lowrence's confessour arrives in the figure of the wolf, Freir Wolf Waitskaith, who, after hearing the confession and allowing him to haggle over the terms of his penance, grants the tod remission. Lowrence, struggling to uphold even this reduced penance, makes an ingenious effort to get around it and pays a sore price.
In Henryson's day, the wolf was still a native creature to Scotland.
Fabill 5 (The Trial of the Tod) is the third Reynardian tale in the Morall Fabillis. Schir Lowrence is dead and his carcase disposed of without ceremony in a bog (a peat pot) by his bastard son who relishes the opportunity to ring and raxe intill his (faitheris) steid.
The young tod's hopes are checked by the arrival of the Royal Court of the Lion and the command that all the animals must appear at a regal tribunall. After trying to "hide at the back", Lowrence is called forward and sent, along with a rather incompetent wolf, to serve a summons on a mare who has failed to appear before the lion. There is much brutal action in the subsequent "comic" story. Despite efforts to avoid justice, Lowrence ultimately does not escape standing trial and being sentenced for his crimes.
At fifty stanzas, The Trial of the Tod is the longest poem in the cycle.
Fabill 6 (The Sheep and the Dog) is the third of the Aesopian tales in the Morall Fabillis. Of the thirteen poems in the cycle, it is one of the most starkly written and the adaptation of its source (Aesop's The Sheep and the Dog) is not at all straightforward. Henryson's version portrays the relationship between the two figures in the in terms of a trial in which the sheep is required to submit to a long, complex, unethically convened judicial process in order that the dog may procure recompense for "stolen" bread. The sheep loses the case, is stripped of his fleece and left to face the winter elements unprotected. The action of the fabill carries over into the moralitas when the sheep questions whether God's justice is detectable on earth.
Although Henryson's sixth fabill is not linked to the previous one in direct narrative terms, it is notable that both involve a trial and feature what seem to be, on the surface, contrasted visions of human justice.
Core prolog and Fabill 7
Fabill 7 (The Lion and the Mouse) is a straightforward but rich expansion of Esope's well-known The Lion and the Mouse in which the lion who reprieves the mouse he has captured is, in return, rescued by the mouse after himself becoming ensnared. Some commentators have noted that the section which describes the imprisonment of the lion is described in terms which plausibly evokes identifiable political events during the reign of James III.
As the central poem in the accepted text of the cycle overall, it has a number of unusual features. Firstly, there is a long prolog which introduces both the narrator and Esope as protagonists directly into the poem as part of the framing action for the fabill. Secondly, the taill is told directly by Esope within the narrator's dream (the narrator meets Esope as part of a dream vision). The moralitas is also delivered by Esope. Thirdly, it is the only fabill in the cycle to have an unambiguously ideal outcome in which all parties have gained.
The plea that the mouse makes for the lion to temper mercy with justice is a long one (10 stanzas) and invokes important civil, legal and spiritual concepts.
Fabill 8 (The Preaching of the Swallow) is widely regarded as being one of Henryson's finest poems. Like Fabill 7 it has a prolog which introduces the narrator directly into the poem, but this time he remains awake and witnesses the story himself (also reporting it himself) as real-time action in the world. The source for the story he "witnesses" is Esope's The Owl and the Birds, a parable in which the wisest of the birds (the owl) counsels all the rest to remove or avoid features in the world which are mortal to their kind. Henryson changes the protagonist to a swallow and the avian danger he selects is flax production, identified for its role in making fowlers' nets.
Fabill 9 (The Fox, the Wolf and the Cadger) is the first of the second set of three Reynardian taillis in the poem. It presents the wolf for the first time in his true fabill colours as a ruthless and lordly predator demanding obeisance. The tod similarly manifests as a wily trickster who (in contrast to the first half of the cycle) completely succeeds in outwitting his victims. The business also involves a human character as a full protagonist.
At the beginning of the taill, the wolf recruits Lowrence into his service. The fox either is, or pretends to be, reluctant but appears to have no choice. While in service, Lowrence opportunistically plants in his master a desire for the largest and most valuable fish (the mysterious "nekhering") from the cart of a passing fish merchant (the cadger) and uses his "demonstration" of how it can be stolen as a single ploy to outwit both the wolf and the man.
The plot of this and the next fabill, which have many parallels and ring many changes, both exlpore the complex relationship between the wolf, the fox and a man.
Fabill 10 (The Fox, the Wolf and the Husbandman), like the fabill before, is the story of a fox who pretends to serve the best interests of a wolf. Again it fully involves a human character in its action and this time even opens with the man as a protagonist.
This time the interest which the fox purports to defend is the wolf's claim on the husbandman's cattle. The case is presented to the man (who is both surprised and fearful at the development) suddenly while on the road at dusk and he has considerable difficulty in countering the wolf's claim. The tod plays the part of lawyer for both the defence and the prosecution, contriving that the man, in effect, keeps his cattle for a bribe. The wolf is then bought off with a trick similar to Fabill 9, only this time, the planted desire is for a non-existent kebbuck and the wolf ends up stranded at the bottom of a well at midnight.
Fabill 11 (The Wolf and the Wether) opens, like Fabill 10, with a human protagonist (the shepherd) but its principal action involves a sheep in a dog skin who believes he is able to guard the rest of the flock from the wolf. The story, in terms of the protagonists, is a complete reversal of Esope's fable The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, although the outcome is essentially the same. Because it is the well-meaning sheep that is destroyed at the end of the fabill (rather than the wolf, as happens in the source) the moralitas, which is short and focusses all the condemnation on the sheep, does not feel like a fair or complete account of the action. The surface message is a profoundly conservative warning to stick to one's station in life.
Fabill 12 (The Wolf and the Lamb) similarly involves the characters of the wolf and a sheep, but this time it is a more straightforward expansion of The Wolf and the Lamb, one of Esope's bleakest "stories". As in Fabill 11, the wolf pitilessly kills his victim. This time, however, the narrator's response in the moralitas (10 stanzas — the longest in the cycle) — is, or seems to be, completely different in terms of sympathies and more impassioned on the theme of social, political and legal injustice.
Fabill 13 and Conclusion
Fabill 13 (The Paddock and the Mouse) is the final poem in the Morall Fabillis. It closes the cycle with a reintroduction of the figure of the mouse which also featured close to the beginning (in Fabill 2) and in the central poem (Fabill 7). The final stanzas of the moralitas also act as a conclusion to the cycle.
The fabill is a straightforward an rich expansion of Esope's The Mouse, the Frog and the Hawk.
Numbers and structure
Since the numerology which Henryson almost certainly employed in his poetry has been increasingly understood in recent years, the counting of stanzas and positions for lines in Henryson's works cannot be assumed to be arbitrary. Use of numbers as a stylistic device was commonly found in medieval poetics.
The Morall Fabillis consists of 424 stanzas making up a cycle of thirteen fabill poems. The number of stanzas for each of the fabillis in the accepted text is shown in the following table. The darker colours indicate the sections of the cycle based on Esopean sources, while the six Reynardian stories are indicated by the paler colour:
Many commentators observe the central position of the taill in fabill 7 which, in terms of overall stanza count, divides the poem in two equal halves. Thus, in numbers of stanzas:
- first half of the cycle: first six fabillis (188) + prolog for fabill seven (12) = 200
- central taill (which occurs in fabill seven) told by Esope = 24
- second half of the cycle: moralitas for fabill seven (7) + remaining six fabillis (193) = 200
The central taill is therefore the precise structural centre of the accepted text:
- 200 + 24 + 200
The seven ballade stanzas
In addition, 4 stanzas near the beginning of the first half (#53-#56) and 3 stanzas towards the end of the second half (#417-#419) are composed in the eight-line ballade form, instead of the seven-line rhyme royal in which the rest of the cycle is written (without further exception). This means, in effect, the poem has an "extra" seven lines (or the equivalent of one more "hidden" rhyme royal stanza) distributed across its two halves — 4 lines in the first, 3 lines in the second. The line count for the three principal divisions of the structure therefore comes out as:
- First half: 1404
- Central taill: 168
- Second half: 1403
Making a total of 2795 lines.
Question of symmetry
Various literary scholars have noted the apparent symmetry in the architecture, citing it as evidence of an organising principle Henryson employed to "lock" the structure of the poem, aesthetically beautiful in its own right and holding important clues for interpreting his larger meaning or purpose. Others have preferred to defend individual readings of various fabillis viewed as self-sufficient entities which they argue question the coherence or completeness of that scheme. Finally John MacQueen cites fragmentation in surviving textual witnesses for the poem before 1570 as grounds for caution in asserting with certainty that the overall structure represents Henryson's intention. Nevertheless, the above outline describes the structure as received from sixteenth century prints and manuscripts which give what the literary scholar Matthew McDiarmid calls the "accepted text".
Place of Aesop in the fable sequence
The figure of Aesop is consistently cited throughout the poem as "my author" (my authority) by the narrator in those stories which are directly based on Aesopian sources. This usually occurs in the opening lines. However, one particularly distinctive feature of the poem is an appearance in person by Aesop himself. This occurs at the heart of the cycle within the prolog to Fabill 7. This presents the master fabulist meeting and conversing with the narrator (Henryson) in a dream vision. Aesop is also portrayed here as (by request of the narrator) directly telling the seventh fabill (The Taill of the Lyoun and the Mous) within this dream vision.
In contrast to more traditional portraits of Aesop as hunchbacked, this dream-vision version presents him as able-bodied. He is first met emerging "sturdily" from out of a schaw and immediately described as one of the "fairest" men the narrator has "ever" seen. A two-stanza portrait gives a detailed description of his appearance:
His gowne wes of ane claith als quhyte as milk,
His chymmeris wes of chambelate purpour broun,
His hude of scarlet, bordowrit weill with silk,
On heikillit wyis until his girdill doun,
His bonat round and of the auld fassoun,
His beird wes quhyte, his ene wes grit and gray,
With lokker hair quhilk over his schulderis lay.
Ane roll of paper in his hand he bair,
Ane swannis pen stikand under his eir,
Ane inkhorne with ane prettie gilt pennair,
Ane bag *of silk, all at his belt can beir: (*made from)
Thus wes he gudelie graithit in his geir,
Of stature large and with ane feirfull face.
Even quhair I lay he come ane sturdie pace,
And said, 'God speid, my sone...
(Robert Henryson, Morall Fabillis, lines 1347-63)
Other Henrysonian variations from the traditional portrait include identifying Aesop as Roman rather than Greek, and as Christianised rather than pagan. It seems unlikely that these "innovations" were not consciously decided, although critics do not agree on how they are to be best interpreted.
There is no evidence that the portrait stood for Henryson himself, although the suggestion has sometimes been made. Henryson and Aesop remain quite distinct in the dialogue of the prologue. Moreover, Fabill 8 goes on to repeat the prologue device of Fabill 7, only this time to show the narrator himself (Henryson) telling the fable — one which has some less ideal and more "realistic" parallels — awake and in real time.
Fable stories were a common trope in medieval and renaissance literature. They were told with the didactic intent of drawing moral lessons which could be either secular or spiritual. Many different versions of the stories were created but writers frequently followed understood conventions. One such convention was the inclusion of the didactic moral lesson in a moralitas (plural moralitates) inserted after the fable. Henryson follows and develops this convention.
By today's standards most surviving fable literature is gey dreich, partly because fable writing was a common classroom exercise. Students might be asked to learn fable plots in order to retell them in contracted or expanded form — modo brevitur and modo latius respectively — then give moral conclusions that could be judged or debated either on secular grounds (ethics, character, etc.) or by following more "spiritual" scholastic principles to do with homily and allegory. In this light, the Morall Fabillis can be viewed technically as a work of maximal modo latius.
Readers who were familiar with the genre may have found the tone, range and complexity of Henryson's attractive, variegated and interlinked fable elaboration unexpected, but the method was not without precedent. A similar "trick" with the genre is found in Chaucer's Nun's Priest's Tale, which is retold by Henryson as Fabill 3 in his sequence and is one of the poem's most directly identifiable sources. However, Henryson's sustained blending and blurring of the secular and the spiritual strands of the genre goes much further than Chaucer's largely secular example.
Question of purpose
Henryson's contribution to the fable tradition is such a uniquely developed, subtly crafted and ambiguous example of a commonplace genre that it presents questions as to the poet's ultimate purpose in composition.
- University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center:
- University of Rochester TEAMS project:
- ↑ A general analysis of the literature in its historical context can be found in Edward Wheatley, Mastering Aesop: Medieval Education, Chaucer, and his Followers, University Press of Florida, 2000. He argues that license to interpret and adapt fable texts was generally accepted practice for medieval writers and readers, and that strict adherence to those sources was not necessarily expected.
- ↑ Morall Fabillis:
- In mother toung, of Latyng (from Latin), I wald preif
- To mak ane maner of translatioun...
- ↑ The elegaic Romulus was the most widely-known fable text in Europe at that time and commonly used in primary education to teach Latin. See, Edward Wheatley, Mastering Aesop, University of Florida Press, 2000, Chapter 1, for a full discussion in context.
- ↑ A modern edition of the elegaic Romulus can be found in Léopold Hervieux, ed., Les fabulistes latins depuis le siècle d'Auguste jusqu'à la. fin du Moyen-Age. Paris: Firmin Didot 1883-94; reprint, New York: Burt Franklin, 1960. Vol 2, p.316.
- ↑ Morall Fabillis:
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 [Gopen]
- ↑ [MacQueen]
- ↑ For instance, George D. Gopen, Ed. The Moral Fables of Aesop. University of Notre Dame Press. 1987. He identifies and discusses three different "conscious arrangements" all of which "point to tales #6-#8 as forming the core of the work". Introduction, pp.17-24.
- ↑ John MacQueen. Complete and Full with Numbers. Rodopi, Amsterdam. 2006. He discusses textual evidence for the ordering in Appendix B. His book mainly focusses on numerological structures in the individual fabillis.
- ↑ Matthew P McDiarmid: Robert Henryson. Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh; 1981. p.64.
- ↑ See Symbolic Literature of the Renaissance for a short, general introduction.
- ↑ Edward Wheatley "Scholastic Commentary and Robert Henryson's Morall Fabillis: The Aesopic Fables" Studies in Philology 91, University of North Carolina Press, 1994. pp.70-99