Japanese painting (絵画 Kaiga?) is one of the oldest and most highly refined of the Japanese arts, encompassing a wide variety of genre and styles. As with the history of Japanese arts in general, the history Japanese painting is a long history of synthesis and competition between native Japanese aesthetics and adaptation of imported ideas. Japanese printmaking especially from the Edo period exerted enormous influence on Western painting in France during the 19th century.
Ancient Japan and Asuka period (until 710)
The origins of painting in Japan date well back into Japan's prehistoric period. Simple stick figures and geometric designs can be found on Jōmon period pottery and Yayoi period (300 BC – 300 AD) dotaku bronze bells. Mural paintings with both geometric and figurative designs have been found in numerous tumuli from the Kofun period and Asuka period (300-700 AD).
With the introduction of the Chinese writing system (kanji), Chinese modes of governmental administration and with the introduction of Buddhism in the Asuka period, many art works were imported into Japan from China and local copies in similar styles began to be produced.
Nara period (710-794)
With the spread of Buddhism in 6th and 7th century Japan, painting of religious imagery flourished to decorate the numerous temples erected by the ruling classes. However, Nara period Japan was more strongly characterized by the art of sculpture, rather than painting.
The earliest surviving paintings from this period include the murals on the walls of the temple of Horyu-ji in Ikaruga, Nara, illustrating episodes from the life of Buddha, the Bodhisattvas, and various minor deities. The style is reminiscent of Chinese paintings from the Sui dynasty or the late Sixteen Kingdoms period. However, by the mid-Nara period, paintings in the style of the Tang dynasty became very popular. These also include the wall murals in the Takamatsuzuka Tomb, dating from around 700 AD. This style evolved into the (Kara-e) genre, which remained popular through the early Heian period.
As most of the paintings in the Nara periods are religious in nature, the vast majority are by anonymous artists. A large collection of Nara period art is preserved at the Shosoin storehouse, formerly owned by Todai-ji, and now under the control of the Imperial Household Agency.
Heian period (794-1185)
With the development of the esoteric Buddhist sects of Shingon and Tendai in 8th and 9th century Japan, religious imagery, most notably painted Mandala, became predominant. Numerous versions of Mandala, especially the Diamond Realm Mandala and the Womb Realm Mandala, were created as hanging scrolls, and also as murals on the walls of temples. A noted early example is at the five-story pagoda of Daigo-ji, a temple south of Kyoto.
With the continuing evolution of Japanese Buddhism towards the Pure Land forms of the Jodo sect in the 10th century, an important new genre was added: the raigozu, which depicts the Buddha Amida arriving to welcome the souls of the faithful to his Western Paradise. A noted early example dating from 1053 exists at the Byodo-in, temple in Uji, Kyoto. This is also considered one early example of Yamato-e Japanese-style painting, which contains representations of the scenery around Kyoto.
By the mid-Heian period, the (kara-e) Chinese style of painting had lost ground to Yamato-e which were initially used primarily for sliding screens and byōbu folding screens. However, Yamato-e also developed into new formats, (especially towards the end of the Heian period) including the emakimono hand scroll. Emakimono encompassed illustrated novels, such as the Genji Monogatari , historical works, such as the Ban Dainagon Ekotoba , and religious works. E-maki artists devised systems of pictorial conventions that convey visually the emotional content of each scene. The Genji Monogtari is organized into discreet episodes, whereas the more lively Ban Dainagon Ekotoba uses a continuous narrative illustration which emphasizes figures in active motion depicted in rapidly executed brush strokes and thin but vibrant colors. The Siege of the Sanjō Palace is another famous example of this style.
E-maki also serve as some of the earliest and greatest examples of the otoko-e (Men's pictures) and onna-e (Women's pictures) styles of painting. There are many fine differences in the two styles, appealing to the aesthetic preferences of the genders. But perhaps most easily noticeable are the differences in subject matter. Onna-e, epitomized by the Tale of Genji handscroll, typically deals with court life, particularly the court ladies, and with romantic themes. Otoko-e, on the other hand, often recorded historical events, particularly battles.
Kamakura period (1185-1333)
These genres continued on through Kamakura period Japan. E-maki of various kinds continued to be produced; however, the Kamakura period was much more strongly characterized by the art of sculpture, rather than painting.
As most of the paintings in the Heian and Kamakura periods are religious in nature, the vast majority are by anonymous artists.
Muromachi period (1333-1573)
During the 14th century, the development of the great Zen monasteries in Kamakura and Kyoto had a major impact on the visual arts. Suibokuga, an austere monochrome style of ink painting introduced from Sung and Yuan dynasty China largely replaced the polychrome scroll paintings of the previous period, although some polychrome portraiture remained – primary in the form of chinso paintings of Zen monks.Typical of such painting is the depiction by the priest-painter Kao of the legendary monk Kensu (Hsien-tzu in Chinese) at the moment he achieved enlightenment. This type of painting was executed with quick brush strokes and a minimum of detail.
'Catching a Catfish with a Gourd' (located at Taizo-in, Myoshin-ji, Kyoto), by the priest-painter Josetsu, marks a turning point in Muromachi painting. In the foreground a man is depicted on the bank of a stream holding a small gourd and looking at a large slithery catfish. Mist fills the middle ground, and the background, mountains appear to be far in the distance. It is generally assumed that the "new style" of the painting, executed about 1413, refers to a more Chinese sense of deep space within the picture plane
By the end of the 14th century, monochrome landscape paintings (sansuiga) had found patronage by the ruling Ashikaga family and was the preferred genre among Zen painters, gradually evolving from its Chinese roots to a more Japanese style.
The foremost artists of the Muromachi period are the priest-painters Shūbun and Sesshū. Shūbun, a monk at the Kyoto temple of Shokoku-ji, created in the painting Reading in a Bamboo Grove (1446) a realistic landscape with deep recession into space. Sesshū, unlike most artists of the period, was able to journey to China and study Chinese painting at its source. Landscape of the Four Seasons (Sansui Chokan; c. 1486) is one of Sesshu's most accomplished works, depicting a continuing landscape through the four seasons.
In the late Muromachi period, ink painting had migrated out of the Zen monasteries into the art world in general, as artists from the Kano school and the Ami school adopted the style and themes, but introducing a more plastic and decorative effect that would continue into modern times.
Important artists in the Muromachi period Japan include:
- Mokkei (circa 1250)
- Mokuan Reien (d.1345)
- Kao Ninga (e.14th century)
- Mincho (1352-1431)
- Josetsu (1405-1423)
- Tenshō Shūbun(d.1460)
- Sesshū Tōyō (1420-1506)
- Kano Masanobu (1434-1530)
- Kano Motonobu (1476-1559)
Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573-1603)
In sharp contrast to the previous Muromachi period, the Azuchi Momoyama period was characterized by a grandiose polychrome style, with extensive use of gold and silver foil, and by works on a very large scale. The Kano school, patronized by Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and their followers and gained tremendously in size and prestige. Kano Eitoku developed a formula for the creation of monumental landscapes on the sliding doors enclosing a room. These huge screens and wall paintings were commissioned to decorate the castles and palaces of the military nobility. This status continued into the subsequent Edo period, as the Tokugawa bakufu continued to promote the works of the Kano school as the officially sanctioned art for the Shogun, daimyo, and Imperial court.
However, non-Kano school artists and currents existed and developed during the Azuchi-Momoyama period as well, adapting Chinese themes to Japanese materials and aesthetics. One important group was the Tosa school, which developed primarily out of the yamato-e tradition, and which was known mostly for small scale works and illustrations of literary classics in book or emaki format.
Important artists in the Azuchi-Momoyama period include:
- Kano Eitoku (1543-1590)
- Kano Sanraku (1559-1663)
- Kano Tanyu (1602-1674)
- Hasegawa Tohaku (1539-1610)
- Kaiho Yusho (1533-1615)
Edo period (1603-1868)
Many art historians show the Edo period as a continuation of the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Certainly, during the early Edo period, many of the previous trends in painting continued to be popular; however, a number of new trends also emerged.
One very significant school which arose in the early Edo period was the Rimpa school, which used classical themes, but presented them in a bold, and lavishly decorative format. Sōtatsu in particular evolved a decorative style by re-creating themes from classical literature, using brilliantly colored figures and motifs from the natural world set against gold-leaf backgrounds. A century later, Korin reworked Sōtatsu's style and created visually gorgeous works uniquely his own.
Another important genre which began during Azuchi-Momoyama period, but which reached its full development during the early Edo period was Namban art, both in the depiction of exotic foreigners and in the use of the exotic foreigner style in painting. This genre was centered around the port of Nagasaki, which after the start of the national seclusion policy of the Tokugawa bakufu was the only Japanese port left open to foreign trade, and was thus the conduit by which Chinese and European artistic influences came to Japan. Paintings in this genre include Nagasaki school paintings, and also the Maruyama-Shijo school, which combine Chinese and Western influences with traditional Japanese elements.
A third important trend in the Edo period was the rise of the Bunjinga (literati painting) genre, also known as the Nanga school (Southern Painting school). This genre started as an imitation of the works of Chinese scholar-amateur painters of the Yuan dynasty, whose works and techniques came to Japan in the mid 18th century. Later bunjinga artists considerably modified both the techniques and the subject matter of this genre to create a blending of Japanese and Chinese styles. The exemplars of this style are Ike no Taiga, Uragami Gyokudo, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden, Tani Buncho, and Yamamoto Baiitsu.
Due to the Tokugawa Shogunate's policies of fiscal and social austerity, the luxurious modes of these genre and styles were largely limited to the upper strata of society, and were unavailable, if not actually forbidden to the lower classes. The common people developed a separate type of art, the fuzokuga, in which painting depicting scenes from common, everyday life, especially that of the common people, kabuki theatre, prostitutes and landscapes were popular. These paintings in the 16th century gave rise to the semi-mass produced woodcut print, or ukiyoe, which was one of the defining media of the mid to late Edo period.
Important artists in the Edo period include:
- Tawaraya Sōtatsu (d.1643)
- Ogata Korin (1658–1716)
- Gion Nankai (1677–1751)
- Sakaki Hyakusen (1697–1752)
- Yanagisawa Kien (1704–1758)
- Yosa Buson (1716–1783)
- Ito Jakuchu (1716–1800)
- Ike no Taiga (1723–1776)
- Maruyama Okyo (1733–1795)
- Okada Beisanjin (1744–1820)
- Uragami Gyokudo (1745–1820)
- Matsumura Goshun (1752–1811)
- Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849)
- Tani Buncho (1763–1840)
- Tanomura Chikuden (1777–1835)
- Okada Hanko (1782–1846)
- Yamamoto Baiitsu (1783–1856)
- Watanabe Kazan (1793–1841)
- Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858)
- Shibata Zeshin (1807–1891)
- Tomioka Tessai (1836–1924)
Prewar period (1868-1945)
The prewar period was marked by the division of art into competing European styles and traditional indigenous styles.
During the Meiji period, Japan underwent a tremendous political and social change in the course of the Europeanization and modernization campaign organized by the Meiji government. Western style painting (Yōga) was officially promoted by the government, who sent promising young artists abroad for studies, and who hired foreign artists to come to Japan to establish an art curriculum at Japanese schools.
However, after an initial burst for western style art, the pendulum swung in the opposite direction, and led by art critic Okakura Kakuzo and educator Ernest Fenollosa, there was a revival of appreciation for traditional Japanese styles (Nihonga). In the 1880, western style art was banned from official exhibitions and was severely criticized by critics. Supported by Okakura and Fenollosa, the Nihonga style evolved with influences from the European pre-Raphaelite movement and European romanticism.
The Yōga style painters formed the Meiji Bijutsukai (Meiji Fine Arts Society) to hold its own exhibitions and to promote a renewed interest in western art.
In 1907, with the establishment of the Bunten under the aegis of the Ministry of Education, both competing groups found mutual recognition and co-existence, and even began the process towards mutual synthesis.
The Taishō period saw the predominance of Yōga over Nihonga. After long stays in Europe, many artists (including Arishima Ikuma) returned to Japan under reign of Yoshihito, bringing with them the techniques of impressionism and early post-impressionism. The works of Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne and Pierre Auguste Renoir influenced early Taishō period paintings. However, yōga artists in the Taishō period also tended towards eclecticism, and there was a profusion of dissident artistic movements. These included the Fusain Society (Fyuzankai) which emphasized styles of post-impressionism, especially fauvism. In 1914, the Nikakai (Second Division Society) emerged to oppose the government-sponsored Bunten Exihibition.
Japanese painting during the Taishō period was only mildly influenced by other contemporary European movements, such as neoclassicism and late post-impressionism.
However, interestingly it was resurgent Nihonga, towards mid-1920s, which adopted certain trends from post-impressionism. The second generation of Nihonga artists formed the Japan Fine Arts Academy (Nihon Bijutsuin) to compete against the government-sponsored Bunten, and although yamato-e traditions remained strong, the increasing use of western perspective, and western concepts of space and light began to blur the distinction between Nihonga and yōga.
Japanese painting in the prewar Shōwa period was largely dominated by Yasui Sotaro and Umehara Ryuzaburo, who introduced the concepts of pure art and abstract painting to the Nihonga tradition, and thus created a more interpretative version of that genre. This trend was further developed by Leonard Foujita and the Nika Society, to encompass surrealism. To promote these trends, the Independent Art Association (Dokuritsu Bijutsu Kyokai) was formed in 1931.
During the World War II, government controls and censorship meant that only patriotic themes could be expressed. Many artists were recruited into the government propaganda effort, and critical non-emotional review of their works is only just beginning.
Important artists in the prewar period include:
- Harada Naojiro (1863-1899)
- Yamamoto Hosui (1850-1906)
- Asai Chu (1856-1907)
- Kano Hogai (1828-1888)
- Hashimoto Gaho (1835-1908)
- Kuroda Seiki (1866-1924)
- Wada Eisaku (1874-1959)
- Okada Saburosuke (1869-1939)
- Sakamoto Hanjiro (1882-1962)
- Aoki Shigeru (1882-1911)
- Fujishima Takeji (1867-1943)
- Yokoyama Taikan 1868-1958
- Hishida Shunso 1874-1911
- Kawai Gyokudo 1873-1957
- Uemura Shōen (1875-1949)
- Maeda Seison 1885-1977
- Shimomura Kanzan 1873-1930
- Takeuchi Seiho 1864-1942
- Tomioka Tessai 1837-1924
- Uemura Shoen 1875-1949
- Shimomura Kanzan (1873-1930)
- Hishida Shunso (1874-1911)
- Imamura Shiro (1880-1916)
- Tomita Keisen (1879-1936)
- Koide Narashige (1887-1931)
- Kishida Ryusei (1891-1929)
- Yorozu Tetsugoro (1885-1927)
- Hayami Gyoshu (1894-1935)
- Kawabata Ryushi (1885-1966)
- Tsuchida Hakusen (1887-1936)
- Murakami Kagaku (1888-1939)
- Yasui Sotaro (1881-1955)
- Sanzo Wada (1883-1967)
- Umehara Ryuzaburo (1888-1986)
- Yasuda Yukihiko (1884-1978)
- Kobayashi Kokei (1883-1957)
- Leonard Foujita (1886-1968)
- Yuzo Saeki (1898-1928)
- Itō Shinsui 1898-1972
- Kaburaki Kiyokata 1878-1972
- Takehisa Yumeji 1884-1934
Postwar period (1945-present)
In the postwar period, the government-sponsored Japan Art Academy (Nihon Geijutsuin) was formed in 1947, containing both nihonga and yōga divisions. Government sponsorship of art exhibitions has ended, but has been replaced by private exhibitions, such as the Nitten, on an even larger scale. Although the Nitten was initially the exhibition of the Japan Art Academy, since 1958 it has been run by a separate private corporation. Participation in the Nitten has become almost a prerequisite for nomination to the Japan Art Academy, which in itself is almost an unofficial prerequisite for nomination to the Order of Culture.
The arts of the Edo and prewar periods (1603-1945) was supported by merchants and urban people. Counter to the Edo and prewar periods, arts of the postwar period became popular. After World War II, painters, calligraphers, and printmakers flourished in the big cities, particularly Tokyo, and became preoccupied with the mechanisms of urban life, reflected in the flickering lights, neon colors, and frenetic pace of their abstractions. All the "isms" of the New York-Paris art world were fervently embraced. After the abstractions of the 1960s, the 1970s saw a return to realism strongly flavored by the "op" and "pop" art movements, embodied in the 1980s in the explosive works of Ushio Shinohara. Many such outstanding avant-garde artists worked both in Japan and abroad, winning international prizes. These artists felt that there was "nothing Japanese" about their works, and indeed they belonged to the international school. By the late 1970s, the search for Japanese qualities and a national style caused many artists to reevaluate their artistic ideology and turn away from what some felt were the empty formulas of the West. Contemporary paintings within the modern idiom began to make conscious use of traditional Japanese art forms, devices, and ideologies. A number of mono-ha artists turned to painting to recapture traditional nuances in spatial arrangements, color harmonies, and lyricism.
Japanese-style painting (nihonga) continues in a prewar fashion, updating traditional expressions while retaining their intrinsic character. Some artists within this style still paint on silk or paper with traditional colors and ink, while others used new materials, such as acrylics.
Many of the older schools of art, most notably those of the Edo and prewar periods, were still practiced. For example, the decorative naturalism of the rimpa school, characterized by brilliant, pure colors and bleeding washes, was reflected in the work of many artists of the postwar period in the 1980s art of Hikosaka Naoyoshi. The realism of Maruyama Ōkyo's school and the calligraphic and spontaneous Japanese style of the gentlemen-scholars were both widely practiced in the 1980s. Sometimes all of these schools, as well as older ones, such as the Kano school ink traditions, were drawn on by contemporary artists in the Japanese style and in the modern idiom. Many Japanese-style painters were honored with awards and prizes as a result of renewed popular demand for Japanese-style art beginning in the 1970s. More and more, the international modern painters also drew on the Japanese schools as they turned away from Western styles in the 1980s. The tendency had been to synthesize East and West. Some artists had already leapt the gap between the two, as did the outstanding painter Shinoda Toko. Her bold sumi ink abstractions were inspired by traditional calligraphy but realized as lyrical expressions of modern abstraction.
There are also a number of contemporary painters in Japan whose work is largely inspired by anime sub-cultures and other aspects of popular and youth culture. Takashi Murakami is perhaps among the most famous and popular of these, along with and the other artists in his Kaikai Kiki studio collective. His work centers on expressing issues and concerns of postwar Japanese society through what are usually seemingly innocuous forms. He draws heavily from anime and related styles, but produces paintings and sculptures in media more traditionally associated with fine arts, intentionally blurring the lines between commercial and popular art and fine arts.
Important artists in the postwar period include:
- Ogura Yuki (1895-2000)
- Uemura Shoko 1902-2001
- Koiso Ryouhei (1903-1988)
- Kaii Higashiyama (1908-1999)
- Keene, Donald. Dawn to the West. Columbia University Press; (1998). ISBN 0-231-11435-4
- Mason, Penelope. History of Japanese Art . Prentice Hall (2005). ISBN 0-13-117602-1
- Sadao, Tsuneko. Discovering the Arts of Japan: A Historical Overview. Kodansha International (2003). ISBN 4-7700-2939-X
- Schaarschmidt Richte. Japanese Modern Art Painting From 1910 . Edition Stemmle. ISBN 3-908161-85-1zh:日本畫